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Can You Join the NDA After Class 10th?

Can You Join the NDA After Class 10th?

Curious if you can join the NDA after completing Class 10th? Our blog provides a straightforward answer and delves into the reasons behind the eligibility criteria for pursuing a career in the National Defence Academy. Explore the possibilities and prerequisites for aspiring candidates.

Preparing for NDA After 10th: Comprehensive Guide

How to Prepare for NDA After 10th: A Comprehensive Guide for Success

If you’re a high school student and aspiring to join the National Defense Academy (NDA), it’s easier to begin your preparation right from class 10th. This beginner’s guide can help you kickstart your journey by outlining the basics of the NDA exam, eligibility criteria, selection process, and how to start your preparation.

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NDA Daily Routine

The Making Of An Officer And A Gentleman The National Defence Academy (NDA) in Pune, India is one of the premier training institutes for officer

Understanding the SSB Interview: A Comprehensive Guide

What is the SSB Interview?

 The full form of SSB is the Services Selection Board. The Services Selection Board conducts the SSB interview for the selection of candidates into the defense forces (Army, Navy, Air Force). 

The purpose of the SSB interview is to assess and evaluate the candidate’s officer-like qualities (OLQs) by analyzing their personality, leadership skills, and aptitude. The objective is to determine if the candidate has the right qualities, skills, and mindset required to become an officer in the defense forces.

Some key points about the SSB interview:

– Conducted over a period of 5 days 

– Consists of psychological tests, group tasks, personal interviews

– Evaluate OLQs like planning and organization, effective intelligence, teamwork, communication skills, ability to reason logically and make quick decisions

– Aims to gauge the candidate’s personality, attitude, leadership qualities and potential

– Tests the candidate’s reactions in different situations through verbal and action tasks

– Select candidates who display good team spirit, interpersonal skills, problem-solving ability, stress management, and officer-like qualities

The SSB interview is considered among the toughest entrance exams in India due to its intense psychological analysis and unconventional methodology. Cracking the SSB code requires understanding its concept and meticulous preparation over a sustained period of time.

SSB Interview 2024 Overview 

The SSB interview process for 2024 is expected to be highly competitive, with a large number of motivated candidates vying for a limited number of vacancies across various branches of the armed forces. 

No. of candidates appearing

In 2023, over 5 lakh candidates appeared for the SSB interviews across the country. This number is expected to rise in 2024, with even more aspirants attempting to join the defense forces. The competition is steadily increasing every year.

Selection rate

The overall selection rate for the SSB interview hovers around 15-20% on average. However, this varies significantly based on factors like the candidate’s profile, performance in the interview rounds, vacancies available, and geographical location of the SSB center. The highest selection rates are seen at Allahabad, Bhopal, and Bangalore centers. 

Branches participating

The Army, Navy, and Air Force conduct their respective SSB interviews for intake into their officer cadres. Key branches participating in SSB 2024 are expected to include Infantry, Armored Corps, Artillery, and Engineers for the Army; Executive, Engineering, and other branches for the Navy; and Flying, Technical, and Ground Duty branches for the Air Force.

Exam dates

The SSB interview schedule is linked to the candidate’s performance in the CDS or NDA exam. The UPSC holds the CDS exam twice a year in February and November. The NDA exam is held twice, usually in April and September. Based on cut-off clearing, candidates are allotted SSB dates and locations. In 2024, CDS exams are planned in Feb and Nov, while NDA exams are expected in Apr and Sep.

SSB Interview Round

SSB Interview Round (1)

The SSB interview is conducted over 5 days and comprises different rounds:

Screening Round

The screening round is conducted on day 1 and comprises of:

Officer Intelligence Rating (OIR) – This is a written exam with verbal and non-verbal reasoning questions testing the candidate’s intelligence Perception and Description Test (PP&DT)– Candidates are shown an image for 30 seconds which they must observe closely. Then they are given 4 minutes to write a story based on the image. Following this, they have to describe the story they wrote in 1 minute. This tests observation skills, creativity, and communication ability.

Sentence Completion Test – Candidates are given incomplete sentences which they must complete in 10 minutes. This tests their expressive ability. 

Based on the candidate’s performance in the screening round tests, the assessors shortlist candidates for the next rounds.

Psychology Test Round 

This round is conducted on day 2 and consists of:

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Candidates are shown 11 pictures, for which they must write imaginative stories. Their stories help assess their personality.

Word Association Test (WAT) – Candidates are given a word and asked to respond with the first word that comes to their mind. This reveals their thought patterns. 

Situation Reaction Test (SRT) – Candidates are given hypothetical situations and asked how they would respond. Analyzing their reactions reveals their temperament.

Self Description Test (SD) – Candidates describe themselves in their own words. This provides insights into their personality.

GTO Tasks

This round spans day 3 and day 4. Candidates perform group tasks as teams, which are observed by assessors. The tasks judge qualities like leadership, teamwork, problem-solving, and coordination. The various tasks are:

Group Discussion (GD) – Topics are given to the group for a 20-30-minute discussion.

Group Planning Exercises (GPE) – Military-based tasks where groups must solve a problem in a set time. 

Progressive Group Tasks (PGT) – Group tasks that increase in difficulty level over multiple stages.

Group Obstacle Race (GOR) – Teams have to negotiate physical obstacles together.

Half Group Task (HGT) – The group is divided into two halves with different tasks. 

Individual Obstacles (IO)– Candidates face individual physical obstacles.

Final Group Task (FGT)- One last group task similar to GPE.

Lecturette – Individual candidates deliver a short lecture on a surprise topic.

Personal Interview

This is held on the final day when the candidate is interviewed by the assessors. Questions are asked about their background, interests, thoughts on current affairs, etc. to gauge their personality. This round reveals leadership traits and officer-like qualities.

Five Days SSB Interview Procedure

The SSB interview is conducted over a period of 5 days. Here is an overview of what happens during each day:

Day 0: Reporting Day

On the reporting day, candidates arrive at the SSB center and complete some initial formalities like document verification, medical exams, filling up PIQ forms, etc. This is the day when candidates get acquainted with other candidates and the environment of the SSB center.

Day 1: Screening Day 

The screening day involves a series of written tests and picture tests like:

– Officer Intelligence Rating Test (OIR) 

– Picture Perception and Description Test (PP&DT)

– Situation Reaction Test (SRT)

Based on the performance in these tests, candidates are recommended for the next testing phase or screened out. This is an elimination day where only candidates who perform well are allowed to proceed further.

Day 2: Psychology Test

On this day, candidates undertake psychological tests like:

– Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

– Word Association Test (WAT) 

– Situation Reaction Test (SRT)

– Self Description Test (SD)

These tests provide insights into the personality and psychology of the candidates. The assessors get to understand qualities like leadership, stress management, achievement motivation etc based on responses to these tests.

Day 3: GTO Tasks 

This day involves a Group Testing Officer (GTO) supervised outdoor tasks called GTO tasks. These are done in small groups and assess qualities like teamwork, communication, problem-solving, coordination, etc. The various GTO tasks are:

– Group Discussion (GD)

– Group Planning Exercise (GPE)  

– Progressive Group Task (PGT)

– Individual Obstacle Race (IOR)

– Group Obstacle Race (GOR)

– Command Task (CT)

– Final Group Task (FGT)

Day 4: Personal Interview

On this day, candidates appear for a personal interview in front of the assessors. This one-on-one interview evaluates the candidate’s personality, subject knowledge, presence of mind, communication skills, etc. 

Day 5: Conference

On the final day, all the assessors and psychologists sit together and discuss each candidate thoroughly. Based on performance across all tests, candidates are recommended or not recommended. Finally, the results are declared and candidates finish the SSB process.

SSB Interview 2024 Overview

SSB Interview 2024 Overview (1)

The SSB interview for 2024 is expected to follow a similar format and process as previous years. Key details include:


– Registration for SSB interviews typically opens 6-9 months before the course start date. Candidates should check official websites for announcements of registration openings.

– Registration can be done online through the respective SSB zoning website. Candidates need to create a login and register for their preferred SSB center and date.

– Demand is usually high so candidates should register as early as possible once registration opens. 


– Call letters are issued to registered candidates indicating the date and venue of their SSB interview. This is usually 1 month prior to the interview date.

– Candidates must thoroughly read and follow all instructions given in the call letter relating to documentation, dress code, items to carry, etc.

Medical Exam

– A medical exam is conducted on the first day of the SSB interview. Candidates found medically unfit are sent back and not allowed to participate further.

– The medical exam includes tests for vision, hearing, physical fitness, past illnesses, allergies, etc. 

– Candidates should ensure they are medically fit as per laid out standards before appearing for the interview.

SSB Interview Day I: Screening Day

The first day of the SSB interview process is the Screening Day, which consists of a series of intelligence and personality tests designed to assess the candidates’ potential to become officers. This round aims to screen out candidates who do not possess the requisite qualities to progress further in the selection process. The key tests conducted on this day are:

Officer Intelligence Test (OIR Test)

The Officer Intelligence Rating (OIR) test is an exam that measures the candidates’ intellectual abilities through verbal and non-verbal reasoning questions. It evaluates numerical ability, verbal ability, reasoning skills, and abstract thinking capabilities. The questions cover topics like analogies, classifications, series completions, coding-decoding, arithmetical reasoning, mathematical operations, relationships, etc. Candidates are allotted a total time of 30 minutes each to attempt 120 questions divided equally into verbal and non-verbal sections.

Picture Perception and Description Test (PPDT)

This test evaluates the candidates’ power of observation, perception, and ability to develop a logical narrative based on visual stimulus. Candidates are shown an ambiguous picture on a screen for 30 seconds, after which they are asked to write a story based on their interpretation in three minutes. They then had to narrate their story in one minute, followed by a group discussion of 15 minutes with other candidates who wrote stories based on the same picture.

Story Narration and Discussion Test

In this test, the candidates listen to an audio story lasting 60-90 seconds. They are then asked to narrate the story in their own words within three minutes on paper. This is followed by a 15-minute group discussion with other candidates based on the narrated story. The assessors evaluate the candidate’s power of expression, clarity of thought, comprehension, imagination, and group interaction skills.


Based on the candidate’s cumulative performance in the above tests, the assessors decide if the candidate should be allowed to progress to the next round of tests or be eliminated at this stage itself. Candidates who make factual errors, have poor comprehension or display inadequate officer-like qualities are screened out after the first day.

SSB Interview Day II Psychology Test

The second day of the SSB interview focuses on assessing the psychological qualities of the candidate through 4 major tests:

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

The TAT is a projective personality test that evaluates a candidate’s patterns of thought, emotions, and interactions with their environment. Candidates are shown pictures depicting human situations and asked to create a story surrounding each picture. The stories reveal their imaginative skills, themes of interest, motivations, and internal conflicts. TAT examines personality aspects like leadership traits, interpersonal interactions, problem-solving skills, and ability to cope with stress.

Word Association Test (WAT)

In the WAT, candidates are read out a word and have to respond with the first word that comes to their mind. It reveals their streams of consciousness, aspirations, thought processes, attitudes and latent desires. SSB psychologists assess qualities like discipline, teamwork, responsibility, cooperation, quick decision-making, and presence of mind based on word associations.

Situation Reaction Test (SRT) 

The SRT evaluates how candidates analyze a given problem and determine an effective solution while under stress. Candidates are given written problems/ situations with a time limit to react and propose their responses. Qualities like comprehension, logical reasoning, planning ability, optimism, and crisis response are gauged through SRT.

Self Description Test

In the SD test, candidates must describe themselves in their own words. They have to write their strengths, weaknesses, likes, dislikes, and aptitudes. This gives insights into their self-awareness, maturity, integrity and ability to introspect. The content reflects their values, priorities, goals, and personality orientation.

SSB Interview Day III (Group Task – 1)

Group Discussion (GD)

The Group Discussion (GD) is designed to gauge the candidate’s skills in logical reasoning, coordination, leadership, problem-solving, conflict resolution, and cooperation in a team setting. Candidates are divided into groups of 8-10 and given a topic to discuss for 15-20 minutes. Performance is evaluated on content, communication, leadership skills, teamwork, and temperament. Candidates should demonstrate strong reasoning, speak logically without repetition, allow others to speak, maintain composure, and coordinate well with the team.

Group (Military) Planning Exercises (GPE) 

The Group Planning Exercise (GPE) tests the candidate’s ability to solve problems in a team. Groups of 8-10 candidates are given a military-style simulated problem and 30 minutes to discuss approaches, make a plan, and write their solution on a map or grid sheet. Evaluators assess analytical abilities, coordination, teamwork, and leadership potential. Candidates should actively participate, listen to others, and help the team develop an optimal, well-reasoned plan.

Progressive Group Task (PGT)

The Progressive Group Task (PGT) evaluates a candidate’s leadership skills over a series of group tasks. Candidates begin in subgroups of 3-4 and are progressively combined into larger groups of 8-10. Each subgroup is assigned a task involving planning, coordination, and implementation in 10-15 minutes. Performance is judged on communication, listening, cooperation, group management, and problem-solving. Candidates should motivate their team, facilitate discussion, assign roles, and lead the group to timely and effective task completion.

Group Obstacle Race (GOR) 

The Group Obstacle Race (GOR) assesses physical fitness, teamwork, and leadership during an outdoor obstacle course challenge. Groups of 6-10 candidates must navigate a series of obstacles and challenges within a time limit. Parameters may include physical tasks like climbing walls, crawling, balancing, or lifting. Performance is evaluated based on team coordination, planning, encouragement of strugglers, and completion. Candidates should motivate and guide their team to safely overcome obstacles and achieve success.

Half Group Task (HGT)

The Half Group Task (HGT) judges a candidate’s response to an unexpected change in leadership and team dynamics. Candidates begin in established groups of 8-10 but are then subdivided into halves. Each subgroup must independently discuss a new problem and arrive at a solution within 10-15 minutes. Assessors evaluate communication, flexibility, coordination, and performance in quickly developing a new team. Candidates should actively reorganize, identify new roles, cooperate effectively, and complete the task successfully.

SSB Interview Day IV (Group Task – 2)


The lecturette is an individual task where the candidate is given a topic and has 3 minutes to prepare a lecture on it. The assessor evaluates the candidate on qualities like expression, content, clarity of thought, body language, and leadership traits. Some tips for lectures:

– Jot down key points instead of writing a full script. This allows for natural flow. 

– Maintain eye contact with assessors and modulate voice. Don’t read off the paper.

– Structure content with introduction, body, and conclusion.

– Use examples and descriptions to explain concepts.

– Convey confidence and enthusiasm through body language.

– Finish within time and ask questions.

Individual Obstacles (IO)

The IO round has 10 obstacles to test the candidate’s planning and execution abilities under stress. Some obstacles are:

– Burma Bridge – using ropes to cross a pit

– Commando Walk – crossing a raised platform using ropes for grip

– Tiger Leap – jumping across a pit

– Monkey Crawl – crawling under a barbwire obstruction

– Tarzan Swing – swinging across a water body using ropes

Tips for IO:

– Stay calm and don’t panic. Assess danger before acting.

– Plan smartly before execution. Analyze obstacles first.

– Display physical fitness, agility, and quick reflexes.

– Show determination to overcome obstacles instead of giving up.

Command Task

In the command task, the candidate is given troops and resources to accomplish a military task in a given timeline. The candidate is evaluated on leadership, planning, execution and achievement of tasks. Tips:

– Remain composed. Avoid confusion. Issue clear instructions. 

– Make a quick plan considering resources and time available. 

– Know the capabilities of troops and resources allotted. Assign work accordingly.

– Lead from the front. Motivate troops for achievement of tasks.

– Manage time and resources efficiently to complete tasks in time.

Final Group Task (FGT) 

The FGT is similar to the GTO task but evaluates a candidate’s improvement and overall officer-like qualities.


– Show development by avoiding previous mistakes.

– Lead by example. Remain active. Motivate teammates.

– Discuss ideas politely. Allow others to speak. 

– Be assertive but not dominating. Accept collective decisions.

– Remain composed under stress. Display good conduct.

– Stay alert and focused till the task is completed.

Personal Interview

This one-on-one interview assesses a candidate’s personality and leadership traits. Some tips:

– Remain truthful, natural, and direct in responses.

– Explain your background, achievements, and goals honestly.

– Exhibit clear thought processes and express yourself confidently.  

– Maintain eye contact and exhibit alert body language.

– Avoid negative emotions like anger, anxiety, or overexcitement. 

– Don’t try to bluff or exaggerate capabilities. Be yourself.

– Show positivity, cooperation, and willingness to shoulder responsibility.

SSB Interview Day V: Conference

The conference is the final day of the SSB interview process. On this day, the candidates who have cleared all the previous stages are called in groups of 10-12 for the final conference with the presiding officer and assessing officers. 

In the conference, the presiding officer discloses the final result and recommendation of the candidate. There are three possible outcomes:

Recommended – You have cleared the SSB interview and are recommended for training.

Not Recommended – You have not cleared the SSB interview and are not recommended for training.

Conference Out – Your performance was borderline and the assessing officers need more time to decide on your result. You will be called again later for another conference.

The presiding officer provides feedback on your performance in the various tests and highlights your strengths and weaknesses. This helps you understand where you need to improve for future attempts. 

If recommended, you also receive information on the type of training you are selected for – army, air force, navy, etc. The medical exam date is also disclosed if applicable.

The conference marks the end of the intensive 5-day SSB interview process. Receiving a recommendation is a huge accomplishment. For those who don’t get through, the feedback provides vital insights to strategize and improve for the next attempt.

SSB Interview tips: 

SSB Interview Tips (1)

  1. Understand the SSB Process: Familiarize yourself with the stages of the SSB interview, which include screening, psychological testing, group testing, and the interview.
  2. Current Affairs: Stay updated on current affairs, especially those related to defense, national and international issues.
  3. Self-awareness: Reflect on your strengths, weaknesses, and achievements. Be prepared to discuss your life, aspirations, and experiences.
  4. Communication Skills: Work on your communication skills. Practice expressing your thoughts clearly and confidently.
  5. Group Discussions: Engage in group discussions with peers to improve your ability to communicate effectively within a group or NDA/officer entries
  6. Physical Fitness: Maintain good physical fitness. Regular exercise can contribute to overall well-being and confidence.
  7. Stay Positive: Develop a positive attitude and optimism. SSB looks for candidates who can handle stress and maintain a positive outlook.
  8. Leadership Skills: Understand the principles of leadership and try to demonstrate them in group activities and discussions.
  9. Practice Situational Judgment: Be ready for situational judgment exercises. Consider the challenges and think about how you would respond.
  10. Dress and Grooming: Present yourself well. Dress appropriately and maintain good grooming standards.
  11. Mock Interviews: Conduct mock interviews with friends or mentors to simulate the interview environment.

Remember, SSB is not just about knowledge; it also evaluates your personality, behavior, and interpersonal skills. Stay authentic and be yourself during the process.

Recommended books for SSB interview 

Recommended books for SSB interview (1)

  1. Let’s Crack SSB Interview” by SSBCrack: A comprehensive guide covering all aspects of the SSB interview process.
  2. “SSB Interview: The Complete Guide” by Dr. N.K. Natarajan: Provides insights into the SSB interview stages, with practical tips and examples.
  3. SSB OIR & PPDT: Complete Guide To Stage 1 SSB Interview by DDE-DEFENCE DIRECT EDUCATION: It is a complete guide to Stage 1 SSB; contains all kinds of verbal and nonverbal topics asked in SSB. These topics have easy explanations to introduce you to the variations.
  4. “Breaking the Code of SSB Psychology” by Colonel M.K. Ojha (Retd): Specifically addresses the psychological testing aspects of the SSB interview.
  5. “SSB Interview: The Complete Manual” by Arihant Publications: Covers all aspects of the SSB interview process, including psychological tests and group tasks.
  6. “Pathfinder for NDA & NA Entrance Examination” by Arihant Publications: While primarily for NDA, it covers topics relevant to SSB interviews.

Remember to check for the latest editions of these books, as they might be updated to align with any changes in the SSB interview pattern or requirements. Additionally, practice with previous years’ question papers to get a glimpse of how the SSB interview procedures work and thus enhance the preparation.

Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) related to SSB interviews:

  1. What is an SSB interview?

The SSB (Services Selection Board) interview is a selection process for candidates applying for officer positions in the Indian Armed Forces. It assesses candidates’ suitability for leadership roles through various psychological, group, and individual tasks.

  1. How many stages are there in the SSB interview?

The SSB interview consists of two stages: Stage I involves screening tests like OIR (Officer Intelligence Rating) and PPDT (Picture Perception and Description Test), and Stage II includes psychological testing, group tasks, personal interviews, and conferences.

  1. What is OIR in the SSB interview?

 OIR stands for Officer Intelligence Rating. It is a written test in Stage I that assesses candidates’ logical and analytical reasoning abilities.

  1. What is PPDT in the SSB interview?

PPDT stands for Picture Perception and Description Test. It is part of the Stage I screening process where candidates observe a picture for a short duration and then write a story based on it.

5. How can I prepare for the SSB interview?

Preparation involves enhancing communication skills, staying updated on current affairs, maintaining physical fitness, practicing group activities, and utilizing SSB-specific guidebooks.

  1. What qualities are assessed during the SSB interview?

 The SSB evaluates qualities such as leadership, effective communication, decision-making, adaptability, courage, and teamwork.

  1. How should I dress for the SSB interview?

Dress in a neat and appropriate manner. Wear formal attire during interviews and carry the required documents.

  1. What is the duration of the SSB interview process?

The SSB interview process usually spans over 5-6 days for most candidates.

  1. What happens if I get recommended at the SSB interview?

If recommended, candidates undergo medical examinations, and upon clearing them, they receive an offer to join the respective academies for training.

  1. Can I reapply for the SSB interview if I don’t get recommended?

Yes, candidates can reapply for the SSB interview after a specific waiting period. The waiting period may vary based on the entry and service.


Success in the SSB interview requires a holistic approach. Focus on developing your communication skills, self-awareness, and leadership qualities. Stay updated on current affairs, maintain physical fitness, and practice situational judgment. Utilize comprehensive guides and books specific to the SSB interview process. Remember, authenticity, a positive attitude, and adaptability are key traits evaluated during the interview. Combine book study with practical exercises and mock interviews for a well-rounded preparation. Best of luck!